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Medical decision making can be an extremely challenging experience for patients and their loved ones. Balancing various potential outcomes with levels of risk can be daunting for someone who is also dealing with the emotional stresses of illness. Gaining the patient’s “true” informed consent is a critical step for health care professionals to ensure that the best decisions can be made.

To prepare for this Discussion, review this week’s Learning Resources, paying particular attention to the Emanuel article, “What Makes Clinical Research Ethical?”

Also, review the Macklin article from Week 1, “Applying the Four Priniciples” before preparing and posting your discussion response.

By Day 4

Post, an explanation of how informed consent for medical research (clinical trials) differs from the patient’s consent to treat used in health care practice (e.g., medical treatment or surgery). Explain why you think this difference exists? Provide at least one clear example of how informed consent could be used in medical research and one example of how it is used in health care practice. Then provide an example of each of the four ethical principals in action in research. Use your textbook, the articles in the Learning Resources, and/or other credible resources to support your answer.



Judson, K., & Harrison, C. (2016). Law and ethics for the health professions. (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Chapter 13, “Health Care Trends and Forecasts” The health care system in the United States has a number of stakeholders. This chapter looks at the various stakeholders and examines the trends that are going to affect the system in the years to come.

Medical Law, Ethics, and Bioethics for the Health Professions

  • Chapter 13, “Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources” This chapter introduces the challenging issue of balancing multiples factors to appropriately allocate scarce medical resources.

Emanuel, E. J., Wendler, D., & Grady, C. (2000). What makes clinical research ethical? American Medical Association, 283, 2701-2711.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Clinical research strives to advance the practice of medicine while maintaining stringent ethical guidelines. This article considers just what makes clinical research ethical.

Singer, P. (2009, July 19). Why we must ration health care. The New York Times Magazine, 38-43.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Health care, like any resource, is in limited supply. This article explores the controversial issue of rationing scarce medical resources.

Nelson-Marten, P., & Rich, B. (1999). A historical perspective of informed consent in clinical practice and research. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 15(2), 81-88.

Note: Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Informed consent forms one of the cornerstones of medical practice and research. This article considers informed consent’s role in medical practice and research.